A chronology of Rome: monuments, sites, churches, the emperors and the popes

Last update: 11 July 2019

A chronology of Rome: the dates of the most important sites, artworks and churches, including emperors, artists and popes

A chronology of Rome: monuments, sites, churches, the emperors and the popes

Date Ruler / Emperor / Pope
Monument / Event
753 BC Romulus, the first king of Rome The date of the mythical foundation of Rome
c. 716 – 616 BC Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius and Ancus Marcius The Latin and Sabine kings of Rome
c. 616 – 509 BC Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius and Tarquinius Superbus The three Etruscan kings of Rome
6th century BC Under Tarquinius Priscus the Circus Maximus becomes a site for games and horse races between the Palatine and Aventine hills.
509 BC Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud) is expelled from Rome, ending the period of the kings and starting the Roman Republic
44 BC Julius Caesar of the Gens Giulia Caesar is assassinated in the theatre of Pompey
31 BC The Circus Maximus is damaged by fire
27 BC – 14 AD The 40 year reign of Augustus The Julio-Claudian dynasty begins
9 AD The Ara Pacis Augustae is built
14 – 37 AD The reign of Tiberius
27/25 AD Pantheon Construction of the first Pantheon by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
37 – 41 AD The reign of Caligula
41 – 54 AD The reign of Claudius
54 – 68 AD The reign of Nero The Julio-Claudian dynasty ends
64 AD A fire destroys central Rome, creating space for Nero’s palace, known as the “Golden House”
64-68 AD Zenodorus makes the bronze Colossus of Nero  statue for the entrance to Nero’s “Golden House”
68 – 69 AD Galba, Otone, Vitellius The “year of the 4 emperors (a period of civil war)
69 – 79 AD The reign of Vespasian The Flavian dynasty begins
70/71 AD The construction of the Colosseum begins
79 – 81 AD The reign of Titus The  Colosseum is inaugurated in 80 AD
80 AD A fire destroys many buildings in the Campus Martius
81 – 96 AD The reign of Domitian  Work on the Colosseum is completed in 81 AD
86 AD The Stadium of Domitian (now Piazza Navona) is dedicated
96 – 98 The reign of Nerva The Nerva–Antonine dynasty begins
98 – 117 The reign of Trajan
103 The Circus Maximus is rebuilt
110 Following a fire the Pantheon is restored
106 -112 AD Trajan’s Forum is built by Apollodorus of Damascus
113 AD Trajan’s Column is inaugurated to commemorate the Dacian Wars
117 – 138 AD The reign of Hadrian The Pantheon is rebuilt from c. 113-125 AD
Hadrian’s mausoleum (the future Castel Sant’Angelo) is begun in c. 130 AD
138 – 161 The reign of Antoninus Pius Hadrian’s dynastic mausoleum is completed in 139 AD
161/169 The joint reign of Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius During the reign of Antoninus Pius the  for the Emperor Hadrian
161 – 180 The reign of Marcus Aurelius
180 – 192 The reign of Commodus The Nerva–Antonine dynasty ends
193 Pertinace, Didio Giuliano (Civil War)
193 – 211 Septimius Severus The Severan dynasty begins
203 Arch of Septimius Severus The Senate had the triumphal arch built in honor of Septimius Severus and his sons Caracalla and Geta
211 – 212 Caracalla + Geta Severan dynasty
211/224 Terme di Caracalla Caracalla builds the largest thermal complex in the world
217 – 218 Macrino, Diadumeniano Severan dynasty
218 – 222 Eliogabalo Severan dynasty
222 – 235 Alessandro Severo Severan dynasty
235 – 284 3rd century crisis (18 emperors)
268 – 284 Illyrian emperors (9 emperors)
284 – 305 Diocletian + Maximian Illyrian emperors
305 – 311 Costanzo Cloro + Galerio
306 – 313 Roman civil war (Flavio Severo, Licinio, Massimo Daia)
306 – 312 Maxentius
306 – 337 Constantine I Constantinian dynasty
315 Arch of Constantine The Senate of Rome had an arch built to celebrate the battle at Ponte Milvio in 312 AD
318 Constantinian Basilica The Emperor Constantine begins the construction where St. Peter’s Basilica will rise
337 – 361 Costantino II + Costanzo II + Costante (Figli di Costantino I) Constantinian dynasty
349 Constantinian Basilica Conclusion of work
361 – 363 Giuliano Constantinian dynasty
363 – 364 Gioviano
364 – 375 Valentiniano I House of Valentinian and Theodosius
364 – 368 Valente House of Valentinian and Theodosius
375 – 383 Graziano House of Valentinian and Theodosius
375 – 392 Valentiniano II House of Valentinian and Theodosius
379 – 395 Theodosius House of Valentinian and Theodosius
395 – 423 Onorio House of Theodosius
421 Costanzo III House of Theodosius
425 – 455 Valentiniano III House of Theodosius
455 – 476 Last emperors (9 emperors)
549 Circo Massimo Last race at the Circus Maximus
1410 Trevi Fountain First project
1453 Trevi Fountain Pope Nicholas V entrusts the restoration of the fountain to Leon Battista Alberti
1506  Basilica of St. Peter’s Start of project construction entrusted to Donato Bramante commissioned by Pope Julius II
1590  Basilica of St. Peter’s Giacomo della Porta completes the dome by Michelangelo
1614  Basilica of St. Peter’s Facade completion. Architect: Carlo Maderno
1640 Trevi Fountain Project by Gian Lorenzo Bernini commissioned by Urban VIII
1732 Trevi Fountain Project by Nicola Salvi, under Clement XII
2014 Trevi Fountain Restoration of the fountain sponsored by Fendi
Colosseum and Roman Forum: Guided Tour
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